Part I, Part II, Part III, Part IV, Part V
In chapter 6, Greenwood lays out the massive paradigm shift that is often labeled the Copernican Revolution. The three major players in this paradigm shift were Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, and Johannes Kepler. Copernicus, unsatisfied with the ability of the Ptolemaic system to account for
Greenwood then goes on to discuss the effects of this scientific paradigm shift on the religious communities of the time. Copernicus was spared much difficulty as he did not publish his work until shortly before his death. Galileo was not so lucky. The Roman Catholic church brought Galileo before the inquisition and charged him with heresy. He was forced to recant.
Both Protestants and Catholics had a difficult time accepting the new paradigm as it seemed to go against he "plain sense" of many biblical passages. The Bible clearly states that the earth is set on firm foundations and does not move (Ps 104:5), and further, the sun, not the earth, was commanded by Joshua to stand still and it did (Josh 10:12). These statements are hard to reconcile with the new Copernican model.
Nevertheless, the Copernican model, though imperfect, won the day. It's scientific and mathematical explanations of the cosmos were impossible for biblical literalism or Papal authority to overturn. Kepler improved on Copernicus with his elliptical orbits, Newton improved on it further with his laws of motion, and Einstein improved it further with his theory of relativity. Now, no one seriously disputes the finding of the Copernican revolution and its subsequent improvements through science, It was left to Christians of all varieties to adjust their biblical interpretations to match the new scientific discoveries. Most Christians today have no difficulty believing in biblical authority while also holding to a modern scientific understanding of the cosmos.